The First Crusade
|1096||Kilij Arslan, sultan of Nicaea, crushes a|
crusaders invasion led by Peter the Hermit.
|1097||First great expedition by the Crusaders, known as|
Franj in Arabia.
|1098||The Crusaders take Edessa and then Antioch, and|
triumph over a Muslim rescue army commanded by Karbuqa, ruler of Mosul. The incident of
cannibalism by the crusaders in Maarra.
"For three days they put people to the
|1099||Fall of Jerusalem, followed by massacres and|
plunder by the crusaders.
The population of the holy city was put to the sword, and the
Baldwin, count of Edessa, escapes an ambush
|1104||Muslim victory at Harran, which checks the|
Crusaders' eastward advance.
|1108||Two coalitions made up of Crusaders and Muslims|
confront one another near Tel Bashir.
|1109||Fall of Tripoli after a 2000-day siege.|
|1110||Fall of Beirut and Saida.|
|1111||Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, organizes a|
riot against the caliph of Baghdad to demand intervention against the Frankish occupation.
|1112||Victorious resistance at Tyre.|
|1115||Alliance of Muslim and Frankish princes of Syria|
against an army dispatched by the sultan.
|1119||Ilghazi, ruler of Aleppo, crushes the Crusaders|
|1124||The Crusaders take Tyre. They now occupy the|
entire coast, except for Ascalon.
|1125||Ibn al-Khashab is murdered by the Assassins sect.|
|1128||Failure of crusaders thrust at Damscus. Zangi the|
ruler of Aleppo.
|1135||Zangi fails to take Damascus.|
|1137||Zangi captures Fulk, king of Jerusalem, then|
|1140||Alliance of Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.|
|1144-1155||The Second Crusade|
|1144||Zangi takes Edessa, destroying the first of the|
four Frankish states of the Orient.
|1146||Murder of Zangi. His son Nur al-Din replaces him|
Debacle at damascus for a new Frankish
|1154||Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus, unifying|
Muslim Syria under his authority.
|1163-69||The struggle for Egypt. Shirkuh, lieutenant of|
Nur al-Din, finally wins. Proclaimed vizier, he dies two months later. He is succeeded by
his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).
|1171||Saladin proclaims the overthrow of the Fatimid|
caliphate. Sole master of Egypt, he finds himself in conflict with Nur al-Din.
|1174||Death of Nur al-Din. Saladin takes Damascus.|
|1183||Saladin takes Aleppo. Egypt and Syria now|
reunited under his aegis.
|1187-1192||The Third Crusade|
|1187||The year of victory. Saladin crushes the|
crusaders armies at Hittin, near Lake Tiberias. He reconquers Jerusalem and the greater
part of the crusaders territories. The crusaders now hold only Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch.
|1190-92||Setback for Saladin at Acre. Intervention of|
Richard the Lionheart, king of England, enables the crusaders to recover several cities
from the sultan, but not Jerusalem.
|1193||Saladin dies in Damascus at the age of 55. After|
several years of civil war, his empire is reunited under the authority of his brother
|1194-1201||The Fourth and Fifth Crusade|
|1204||The crusaders take Constantinople. Sack of the|
|1216-1218||The Sixth Crusade|
|1218-21||Invasion of Egypt by the crusaders. They take|
Damietta and head for Cairo, but the sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, finally repels them.
|1227-1229||The Seventh Crusade|
|1229||Al-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor|
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world.
The crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last
|1245-1247||The Eighth Crusade|
|1248-50||Invasion of Egypt by Louis IX, King of France,|
who is defeated and captured. Fall of the Ayyubid dynasty; replaced by the rule of the
|1258||The Mongol chief Hulegu, grandson of Genghis|
Khan, sacks Baghdad, massacring the population and killing the last Abbasid caliph.
|1260||The Mongol army, after occupying first Aleppo and|
then damascus, is defeated at the battle of Ayn Jalut in palestine. Baybars at the head of
the Mamluk sultanate.
|1268||Baybars takes Antioch, which had been allied with|
|1270||Louis IX dies near Tunis in the course of a|
|1289||The mamluk sultan Qalawun takes Tripoli.|
|1291||The sultan Khalil, son of Qalawun, takes Acre,|
putting an end to two centuries of crusaders presence in the Orient.
Main reference: The Crusades Through Arab Eyes by Amin Maalouf, translated by Jon Rothschild, 1984. Al Saqi Books, 26 Wetbourne Grove, London W2.